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Term: ecosystem
Origin: Anc Greek
οίκος/ecos(=house) οίκος>σοίκος/soicos>σάκος/sacos(=protection)
σύστημα/systema(=union) > συνίστημι/synistimy(=to unite, to compine)

in 1930 by British botanist Roy Clapham (1904 - 1990) in order to describe the combined physical and biological components of an environment. Five years  later (1935) the term was refined by British ecologist Arthur Tansley (1871 – 1955) who refered to ecosystem as:  "The whole system, … including not only the organism-complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment. The modern definition of the term is due to American ecologist "Eugene Pleasants Odum (1913-2002), who defined ecosystems as: "Any unit that includes all of the organisms (ie: the "community") in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity, and material cycles (ie: exchange of materials between living and nonliving parts) within the system is an ecosystem
An ecosystem is environment consisting of all the organisms and the abiotic environment within which the organisms live

  • Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology. Third edition. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
  • ."Tansley, AG "The use and abuse of vegetational terms and concepts". Ecology 16 (3): 284–307,  (1935).

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